*LETTERS OF RECOMMENDATION*
K - 12 Schools
A REVIEW OF HISTORICAL LITERATURE
WHY INFORMAL SCIENCE EDUCATION ?
APS NEWS ARTICLE
MEETING STEPHEN HAWKING
NY TIMES STORY re: An Elegant Solution
AND MATH TRICKS*
BIRTHDAY CARD TRICK
LINKS OF INTEREST
THE NATIONAL SCIENCE STANDARDS
addressed by Bob Friedhoffer’s programs
- Plan and conduct a simple
- Employ simple equipment and
tools to gather data and extend the senses
- Use data to construct a
UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
- Scientific investigations
involve asking and answering a question and comparing the answer with what
scientists already know about the world. Beginning in grades K-4, teachers
should build on students' natural inclinations to ask questions and
investigate their world.
- Scientists use different
kinds of investigations depending on the questions they are trying to
answer. Types of investigations include describing objects, events, and
organisms; classifying them; and doing a fair test (experimenting)
- Scientists develop
explanations using observations (evidence) and what they already know
about the world (scientific knowledge). Good explanations are based on
evidence from investigations
- Scientists make the results
of their investigations public; they describe the investigations in ways
that enable others to repeat the investigations.
- Scientists review and ask
questions about the results of other scientists' work.
All students should develop
an understanding of
- Properties of objects and materials
- Position and motion of
- Light, heat, electricity,
- IDENTIFY A SIMPLE PROBLEM.
In problem identification, children should develop the ability to
explain a problem in their own words and identify a specific task and
solution related to the problem.
- PROPOSE A SOLUTION.
Students should make proposals to build something or get something to work
better; they should be able to describe and communicate their ideas.
Students should recognize that designing a solution might have
constraints, such as cost, materials, time, space, or safety.
- IMPLEMENTING PROPOSED
SOLUTIONS. Children should develop abilities to work individually and
collaboratively and to use suitable tools, techniques, and quantitative
measurements when appropriate. Students should demonstrate the ability to
balance simple constraints in problem solving.
- EVALUATE A PRODUCT OR
DESIGN. Students should evaluate their own results or solutions to
problems, as well as those of other children, by considering how well a
product or design met the challenge to solve a problem. When possible,
students should use measurements and include constraints and other
criteria in their evaluations. They should modify designs based on the
results of evaluations.
- COMMUNICATE A PROBLEM,
DESIGN, AND SOLUTION. Student abilities should include oral, written,
and pictorial communication of the design process and product. The
communication might be show and tell, group discussions, short written
reports, or pictures, depending on the students' abilities and the design
Students in grades
5-8 can begin to recognize the relationship between explanation and evidence.
GUIDE TO THE
Fundamental abilities and concepts that underlie
this standard include
- Abilities necessary to do
- Identify questions that can
be answered through scientific investigations
- Design and conduct a
- Think critically and
logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations
and principles that underlie this standard include
PROPERTIES AND CHANGES OF PROPERTIES IN MATTER
- A substance has
characteristic properties, such as density, a boiling point, and
solubility, all of which are independent of the amount of the sample. A
mixture of substances often can be separated into the original substances
using one or more of the characteristic properties.
- Substances react chemically
in characteristic ways with other substances to form new substances
(compounds) with different characteristic properties. In chemical reactions,
the total mass is conserved. Substances often are placed in categories or
groups if they react in similar ways; metals is an example of such a
- Chemical elements do not
break down during normal laboratory reactions involving such treatments as
heating, exposure to electric current, or reaction with acids. There are
more than 100 known elements that combine in a multitude of ways to
produce compounds, which account for the living and nonliving substances
that we encounter.
MOTIONS AND FORCES
- The motion of an object can
be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. That motion
can be measured and represented on a graph.
- An object that is not being
subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a
- If more than one force acts
on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or
cancel one another, depending on their direction and magnitude. Unbalanced
forces will cause changes in the speed or direction of an object's motion.
In the middle-school years,
students' work with scientific investigations can be complemented by activities
that are meant to meet a human need, solve a human problem, or develop a
History and Nature of Science
CONTENT STANDARD G:
As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop
- Science as a human endeavor
- Nature of science
- History of science
Not all of these are included in every presentation. As the shows are a constant work in progress,
parts of the standards not
listed that may be included.
The standards can be found in full at
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